Samuel Pepys diary July 1666

JULY 1666

July 1st (Sunday). Up betimes, and to the office receiving letters, two or
three one after another from Sir W. Coventry, and sent as many to him,
being full of variety of business and hurry, but among the chiefest is the
getting of these pressed men out of the City down the river to the fleete.
While I was hard at it comes Sir W. Pen to towne, which I little expected,
having invited my Lady and her daughter Pegg to dine with me to-day; which
at noon they did, and Sir W. Pen with them: and pretty merry we were. And
though I do not love him, yet I find it necessary to keep in with him; his
good service at Shearnesse in getting out the fleete being much taken
notice of, and reported to the King and Duke [of York], even from the
Prince and Duke of Albemarle themselves, and made the most of to me and
them by Sir W. Coventry: therefore I think it discretion, great and
necessary discretion, to keep in with him. After dinner to the office
again, where busy, and then down to Deptford to the yard, thinking to have
seen Bagwells wife, whose husband is gone yesterday back to the fleete,
but I did not see her, so missed what I went for, and so back to the Tower
several times, about the business of the pressed men, and late at it till
twelve at night, shipping of them. But, Lord! how some poor women did cry;
and in my life I never did see such natural expression of passion as I did
here in some womens bewailing themselves, and running to every parcel of
men that were brought, one after another, to look for their husbands, and
wept over every vessel that went off, thinking they might be there, and
looking after the ship as far as ever they could by moone-light, that it
grieved me to the heart to hear them. Besides, to see poor patient
labouring men and housekeepers, leaving poor wives and families, taking up
on a sudden by strangers, was very hard, and that without press-money, but
forced against all law to be gone. It is a great tyranny. Having done this
I to the Lieutenant of the Tower and bade him good night, and so away home
and to bed.

2nd. Up betimes, and forced to go to my Lord Mayors, about the business
of the pressed men; and indeed I find him a mean man of understanding and
dispatch of any publique business. Thence out of curiosity to Bridewell to
see the pressed men, where there are about 300; but so unruly that I durst
not go among them: and they have reason to be so, having been kept these
three days prisoners, with little or no victuals, and pressed out, and,
contrary to all course of law, without press-money, and men that are not
liable to it. Here I met with prating Colonel Cox, one of the City
collonells heretofore a great presbyter: but to hear how the fellow did
commend himself, and the service he do the King; and, like an asse, at
Pauls did take me out of my way on purpose to show me the gate (the
little north gate) where he had two men shot close by him on each hand,
and his own hair burnt by a bullet-shot in the insurrection of Venner, and
himself escaped. Thence home and to the Tower to see the men from
Bridewell shipped. Being rid of him I home to dinner, and thence to the
Excise office by appointment to meet my Lord Bellasses and the
Commissioners, which we did and soon dispatched, and so I home, and there
was called by Pegg Pen to her house, where her father and mother, and Mrs.
Norton, the second Roxalana, a fine woman, indifferent handsome, good body
and hand, and good mine, and pretends to sing, but do it not excellently.
However I took pleasure there, and my wife was sent for, and Creed come in
to us, and so there we spent the most of the afternoon. Thence weary of
losing so much time I to the office, and thence presently down to
Deptford; but to see what a consternation there is upon the water by
reason of this great press, that nothing is able to get a waterman to
appear almost. Here I meant to have spoke with Bagwells mother, but her
face was sore, and so I did not, but returned and upon the water found one
of the vessels loaden with the Bridewell birds in a great mutiny, and they
would not sail, not they; but with good words, and cajoling the ringleader
into the Tower (where, when he was come, he was clapped up in the hole),
they were got very quietly; but I think it is much if they do not run the
vessel on ground. But away they went, and I to the Lieutenant of the
Tower, and having talked with him a little, then home to supper very late
and to bed weary.

3rd. Being very weary, lay long in bed, then to the office and there sat
all the day. At noon dined at home, Baltys wife with us, and in very good
humour I was and merry at dinner, and after dinner a song or two, and so I
abroad to my Lord Treasurers (sending my sister home by the coach), while
I staid there by appointment to have met my Lord Bellasses and
Commissioners of Excise, but they did not meet me, he being abroad.
However Mr. Finch, one of the Commissioners, I met there, and he and I
walked two houres together in the garden, talking of many things;
sometimes of Mr. Povy, whose vanity, prodigality, neglect of his business,
and committing it to unfit hands hath undone him and outed him of all his
publique employments, and the thing set on foot by an accidental revivall
of a business, wherein he had three or fours years ago, by surprize, got
the Duke of Yorke to sign to the having a sum of money paid out of the
Excise, before some that was due to him, and now the money is fallen
short, and the Duke never likely to be paid. This being revived hath
undone Povy. Then we fell to discourse of the Parliament, and the great
men there: and among others, Mr. Vaughan, whom he reports as a man of
excellent judgement and learning, but most passionate and opiniastre. He
had done himself the most wrong (though he values it not), that is, the
displeasure of the King in his standing so long against the breaking of
the Act for a trienniall parliament; but yet do believe him to be a most
loyall gentleman. He told me Mr. Prins character; that he is a man of
mighty labour and reading and memory, but the worst judge of matters, or
layer together of what he hath read, in the world; which I do not,
however, believe him in; that he believes him very true to the King in his
heart, but can never be reconciled to episcopacy; that the House do not
lay much weight upon him, or any thing he says. He told me many fine
things, and so we parted, and I home and hard to work a while at the
office and then home and till midnight about settling my last months
accounts wherein I have been interrupted by public business, that I did
not state them two or three days ago, but I do now to my great joy find
myself worth above L5600, for which the Lords name be praised! So with my
heart full of content to bed. Newes come yesterday from Harwich, that the
Dutch had appeared upon our coast with their fleete, and we believe did go
to the Gun-fleete, and they are supposed to be there now; but I have heard
nothing of them to-day. Yesterday Dr. Whistler, at Sir W. Pens, told me
that Alexander Broome, a the great song-maker, is lately dead.

4th. Up, and visited very betimes by Mr. Sheply, who is come to town upon
business from Hinchingbrooke, where he left all well. I out and walked
along with him as far as Fleet Streete, it being a fast day, the usual
fast day for the plague, and few coaches to be had. Thanks be to God, the
plague is, as I hear, encreased but two this week; but in the country in
several places it rages mightily, and particularly in Colchester, where it
hath long been, and is believed will quite depopulate the place. To St.
Jamess, and there did our usual business with the Duke, all of us, among
other things, discoursing about the places where to build ten great ships;
the King and Council have resolved on none to be under third-rates; but it
is impossible to do it, unless we have more money towards the doing it
than yet we have in any view. But, however, the shew must be made to the
world. Thence to my Lord Bellasses to take my leave of him, he being going
down to the North to look after the Militia there, for fear of an
invasion. Thence home and dined, and then to the office, where busy all
day, and in the evening Sir W. Pen come to me, and we walked together, and
talked of the late fight. I find him very plain, that the whole conduct of
the late fight was ill, and that that of truths all, and he tells me that
it is not he, but two-thirds of the commanders of the whole fleete have
told him so: they all saying, that they durst not oppose it at the Council
of War, for fear of being called cowards, though it was wholly against
their judgement to fight that day with the disproportion of force, and
then we not being able to use one gun of our lower tier, which was a
greater disproportion than the other. Besides, we might very well have
staid in the Downs without fighting, or any where else, till the Prince
could have come up to them; or at least till the weather was fair, that we
might have the benefit of our whole force in the ships that we had. He
says three things must [be] remedied, or else we shall be undone by this
fleete. 1. That we must fight in a line, whereas we fight promiscuously,
to our utter and demonstrable ruine; the Dutch fighting otherwise; and we,
whenever we beat them. 2. We must not desert ships of our own in distress,
as we did, for that makes a captain desperate, and he will fling away his
ship, when there is no hopes left him of succour. 3. That ships, when they
are a little shattered, must not take the liberty to come in of
themselves, but refit themselves the best they can, and stay out—many
of our ships coming in with very small disablenesses. He told me that our
very commanders, nay, our very flag-officers, do stand in need of
exercising among themselves, and discoursing the business of commanding a
fleete; he telling me that even one of our flag-men in the fleete did not
know which tacke lost the wind, or which kept it, in the last engagement.
He says it was pure dismaying and fear that made them all run upon the
Galloper, not having their wits about them; and that it was a miracle they
were not all lost. He much inveighs upon my discoursing of Sir John
Lawsons saying heretofore, that sixty sail would do as much as one
hundred; and says that he was a man of no counsel at all, but had got the
confidence to say as the gallants did, and did propose to himself to make
himself great by them, and saying as they did; but was no man of judgement
in his business, but hath been out in the greatest points that have come
before them. And then in the business of fore-castles, which he did
oppose, all the world sees now the use of them for shelter of men. He did
talk very rationally to me, insomuch that I took more pleasure this night
in hearing him discourse, than I ever did in my life in any thing that he
said. He gone I to the office again, and so after some business home to
supper and to bed.

5th. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning busy, then at noon
dined and Mr. Sheply with me, who come to towne the other day. I lent him
630 in silver upon 30 pieces in gold. But to see how apt every body is to
neglect old kindnesses! I must charge myself with the ingratitude of being
unwilling to lend him so much money without some pawne, if he should have
asked it, but he did not aske it, poor man, and so no harm done. After
dinner, he gone, I to my office and Lumbard Streete about money, and then
to my office again, very busy, and so till late, and then a song with my
wife and Mercer in the garden, and so with great content to bed.

6th. Up, and after doing some business at my office abroad to Lumbard
Street, about the getting of a good sum of money, thence home, in
preparation for my having some good sum in my hands, for fear of a trouble
in the State, that I may not have all I have in the world out of my hands
and so be left a beggar. Having put that in a way, I home to the office,
and so to the Tower; about shipping of some more pressed men, and that
done, away to Broad Streete, to Sir G. Carteret, who is at a pay of
tickets all alone, and I believe not less than one thousand people in the
streets. But it is a pretty thing to observe that both there and every
where else, a man shall see many women now-a-days of mean sort in the
streets, but no men; men being so afeard of the press. I dined with Sir G.
Carteret, and after dinner had much discourse about our publique business;
and he do seem to fear every day more and more what I do; which is, a
general confusion in the State; plainly answering me to the question, who
is it that the weight of the warr depends [upon]? that it is only Sir W.
Coventry. He tells me, too, the Duke of Albemarle is dissatisfied, and
that the Duchesse do curse Coventry as the man that betrayed her husband
to the sea: though I believe that it is not so. Thence to Lumbard Streete,
and received L2000, and carried it home: whereof L1000 in gold. The
greatest quantity not only that I ever had of gold, but that ever I saw
together, and is not much above half a 100 lb. bag full, but is much
weightier. This I do for security sake, and convenience of carriage;
though it costs me above L70 the change of it, at 18 1/2d. per piece.
Being at home, I there met with a letter from Bab Allen,—[Mrs. Knipp]—to
invite me to be god-father to her boy, with Mrs. Williams, which I
consented to, but know not the time when it is to be. Thence down to the
Old Swan, calling at Michells, he not being within, and there I did steal
a kiss or two of her, and staying a little longer, he come in, and her
father, whom I carried to Westminster, my business being thither, and so
back again home, and very busy all the evening. At night a song in the
garden and to bed.

7th. At the office all the morning, at noon dined at home and Creed with
me, and after dinner he and I two or three hours in my chamber discoursing
of the fittest way for a man to do that hath money, and find all he offers
of turning some into gold and leaving some in a friends hand is nothing
more than what I thought of myself, but is doubtful, as well as I, what is
best to be done of all these or other ways to be thought on. He tells me
he finds all things mighty dull at Court; and that they now begin to lie
long in bed; it being, as we suppose, not seemly for them to be found
playing and gaming as they used to be; nor that their minds are at ease
enough to follow those sports, and yet not knowing how to employ
themselves (though there be work enough for their thoughts and councils
and pains), they keep long in bed. But he thinks with me, that there is
nothing in the world can helpe us but the Kings personal looking after
his business and his officers, and that with that we may yet do well; but
otherwise must be undone: nobody at this day taking care of any thing, nor
hath any body to call him to account for it. Thence left him and to my
office all the afternoon busy, and in some pain in my back by some bruise
or other I have given myself in my right testicle this morning, and the
pain lies there and hath done, and in my back thereupon all this day. At
night into the garden to my wife and Lady Pen and Pegg, and Creed, who
staid with them till to at night. My Lady Pen did give us a tarte and
other things, and so broke up late and I to bed. It proved the hottest
night that ever I was in in my life, and thundered and lightened all night
long and rained hard. But, Lord! to see in what fears I lay a good while,
hearing of a little noise of somebody walking in the house: so rung the
bell, and it was my mayds going to bed about one oclock in the morning.
But the fear of being robbed, having so much money in the house, was very
great, and is still so, and do much disquiet me.

8th (Lords day). Up, and pretty well of my pain, so that it did not
trouble me at all, and I do clearly find that my pain in my back was
nothing but only accompanied my bruise in my stones. To church, wife and
Mercer and I, in expectation of hearing some mighty preacher to-day, Mrs.
Mary Batelier sending us word so; but it proved our ordinary silly
lecturer, which made me merry, and she laughed upon us to see her mistake.
At noon W. Hewer dined with us, and a good dinner, and I expected to have
had newes sent me of Knipps christening to-day; but, hearing nothing of
it, I did not go, though I fear it is but their forgetfulness and so I may
disappoint them. To church, after dinner, again, a thing I have not done a
good while before, go twice in one day. After church with my wife and
Mercer and Tom by water through bridge to the Spring Garden at Fox Hall,
and thence down to Deptford and there did a little business, and so back
home and to bed.

9th. Up betimes, and with Sir W. Pen in his coach to Westminster to Sir G.
Downings, but missed of him, and so we parted, I by water home, where
busy all the morning, at noon dined at home, and after dinner to my
office, where busy till come to by Lovett and his wife, who have brought
me some sheets of paper varnished on one side, which lies very white and
smooth and, I think, will do our business most exactly, and will come up
to the use that I intended them for, and I am apt to believe will be an
invention that will take in the world. I have made up a little book of it
to give Sir W. Coventry to-morrow, and am very well pleased with it. Home
with them, and there find my aunt Wight with my wife come to take her
leave of her, being going for the summer into the country; and there was
also Mrs. Mary Batelier and her sister, newly come out of France, a black,
very black woman, but mighty good-natured people both, as ever I saw. Here
I made the black one sing a French song, which she did mighty innocently;
and then Mrs. Lovett play on the lute, which she do very well; and then
Mercer and I sang; and so, with great pleasure, I left them, having shewed
them my chamber, and L1000 in gold, which they wondered at, and given them
sweetmeats, and shewn my aunt Wight my fathers picture, which she
admires. So I left them and to the office, where Mr. Moore come to me and
talking of my Lords family business tells me that Mr. Sheply is
ignorantly, we all believe, mistaken in his accounts above L700 more than
he can discharge himself of, which is a mighty misfortune, poor man, and
may undo him, and yet every body believes that he do it most honestly. I
am troubled for him very much. He gone, I hard at the office till night,
then home to supper and to bed.

10th. Up, and to the office, where busy all the morning, sitting, and
there presented Sir W. Coventry with my little book made up of Lovetts
varnished paper, which he and the whole board liked very well. At noon
home to dinner and then to the office; the yarde being very full of women
(I believe above three hundred) coming to get money for their husbands and
friends that are prisoners in Holland; and they lay clamouring and
swearing and cursing us, that my wife and I were afeard to send a
venison-pasty that we have for supper to-night to the cooks to be baked,
for fear of their offering violence to it: but it went, and no hurt done.
Then I took an opportunity, when they were all gone into the foreyarde,
and slipt into the office and there busy all the afternoon, but by and by
the women got into the garden, and come all to my closett window, and
there tormented me, and I confess their cries were so sad for money, and
laying down the condition of their families and their husbands, and what
they have done and suffered for the King, and how ill they are used by us,
and how well the Dutch are used here by the allowance of their masters,
and what their husbands are offered to serve the Dutch abroad, that I do
most heartily pity them, and was ready to cry to hear them, but cannot
helpe them. However, when the rest were gone, I did call one to me that I
heard complaine only and pity her husband and did give her some money, and
she blessed me and went away. Anon my business at the office being done I
to the Tower to speak with Sir John Robinson about business, principally
the bad condition of the pressed men for want of clothes, so it is
represented from the fleete, and so to provide them shirts and stockings
and drawers. Having done with him about that, I home and there find my
wife and the two Mrs. Bateliers walking in the garden. I with them till
almost 9 at night, and then they and we and Mrs. Mercer, the mother, and
her daughter Anne, and our Mercer, to supper to a good venison-pasty and
other good things, and had a good supper, and very merry, Mistresses
Bateliers being both very good-humoured. We sang and talked, and then led
them home, and there they made us drink; and, among other things, did show
us, in cages, some birds brought from about Bourdeaux, that are all fat,
and, examining one of them, they are so, almost all fat. Their name is
[Ortolans], which are brought over to the King for him to eat, and indeed
are excellent things. We parted from them and so home to bed, it being
very late, and to bed.

11th. Up, and by water to Sir G. Downings, there to discourse with him
about the reliefe of the prisoners in Holland; which I did, and we do
resolve of the manner of sending them some. So I away by coach to St.
Jamess, and there hear that the Duchesse is lately brought to bed of a
boy. By and by called to wait on the Duke, the King being present; and
there agreed, among other things, of the places to build the ten new great
ships ordered to be built, and as to the relief of prisoners in Holland.
And then about several stories of the basenesse of the King of Spaynes
being served with officers: they in Flanders having as good common men as
any Prince in the world, but the veriest cowards for the officers, nay for
the generall officers, as the Generall and Lieutenant-generall, in the
whole world. But, above all things, the King did speake most in contempt
of the ceremoniousnesse of the King of Spayne, that he do nothing but
under some ridiculous form or other, and will not piss but another must
hold the chamber-pot. Thence to Westminster Hall and there staid a while,
and then to the Swan and kissed Sarah, and so home to dinner, and after
dinner out again to Sir Robert Viner, and there did agree with him to
accommodate some business of tallys so as I shall get in near L2000 into
my own hands, which is in the Kings, upon tallys; which will be a
pleasure to me, and satisfaction to have a good sum in my own hands,
whatever evil disturbances should be in the State; though it troubles me
to lose so great a profit as the Kings interest of ten per cent. for that
money. Thence to Westminster, doing several things by the way, and there
failed of meeting Mrs. Lane, and so by coach took up my wife at her
sisters, and so away to Islington, she and I alone, and so through
Hackney, and home late, our discourse being about laying up of some money
safe in prevention to the troubles I am afeard we may have in the state,
and so sleepy (for want of sleep the last night, going to bed late and
rising betimes in the morning) home, but when I come to the office, I
there met with a command from my Lord Arlington, to go down to a galliott
at Greenwich, by the Kings particular command, that is going to carry the
Savoy Envoye over, and we fear there may be many Frenchmen there on board;
and so I have a power and command to search for and seize all that have
not passes from one of the Secretarys of State, and to bring them and
their papers and everything else in custody some whither. So I to the
Tower, and got a couple of musquetiers with me, and Griffen and my boy Tom
and so down; and, being come, found none on board but two or three
servants, looking to horses and doggs, there on board, and, seeing no
more, I staid not long there, but away and on shore at Greenwich, the
night being late and the tide against us; so, having sent before, to Mrs.
Clerkes and there I had a good bed, and well received, the whole people
rising to see me, and among the rest young Mrs. Daniel, whom I kissed
again and again alone, and so by and by to bed and slept pretty well,

12th. But was up again by five oclock, and was forced to rise, having
much business, and so up and dressed myself (enquiring, was told that Mrs.
Tooker was gone hence to live at London) and away with Poundy to the
Tower, and thence, having shifted myself, but being mighty drowsy for want
of sleep, I by coach to St. Jamess, to Goring House, there to wait on my
Lord Arlington to give him an account of my nights worke, but he was not
up, being not long since married: so, after walking up and down the house
below,—being the house I was once at Hartlibs sisters wedding, and
is a very fine house and finely furnished,—and then thinking it too
much for me to lose time to wait my Lords rising, I away to St. Jamess,
and there to Sir W. Coventry, and wrote a letter to my Lord Arlington
giving him an account of what I have done, and so with Sir W. Coventry
into London, to the office. And all the way I observed him mightily to
make mirth of the Duke of Albemarle and his people about him, saying, that
he was the happiest man in the world for doing of great things by sorry
instruments. And so particularized in Sir W. Clerke, and Riggs, and
Halsey, and others. And then again said that the only quality eminent in
him was, that he did persevere; and indeed he is a very drudge, and stands
by the Kings business. And this he said, that one thing he was good at,
that he never would receive an excuse if the thing was not done; listening
to no reasoning for it, be it good or bad. But then I told him, what he
confessed, that he would however give the man, that he employs, orders for
removing of any obstruction that he thinks he shall meet with in the
world, and instanced in several warrants that he issued for breaking open
of houses and other outrages about the business of prizes, which people
bore with either for affection or fear, which he believes would not have
been borne with from the King, nor Duke, nor any man else in England, and
I thinke he is in the right, but it is not from their love of him, but
from something else I cannot presently say. Sir W. Coventry did further
say concerning Warcupp, his kinsman, that had the simplicity to tell Sir
W. Coventry, that the Duke did intend to go to sea and to leave him his
agent on shore for all things that related to the sea. But, says Sir W.
Coventry, I did believe but the Duke of Yorke would expect to be his agent
on shore for all sea matters. And then he begun to say what a great man
Warcupp was, and something else, and what was that but a great lyer; and
told me a story, how at table he did, they speaking about antipathys, say,
that a rose touching his skin any where, would make it rise and pimple;
and, by and by, the dessert coming, with roses upon it, the Duchesse bid
him try, and they did; but they rubbed and rubbed, but nothing would do in
the world, by which his lie was found at then. He spoke contemptibly of
Holmes and his mermidons, that come to take down the ships from hence, and
have carried them without any necessaries, or any thing almost, that they
will certainly be longer getting ready than if they had staid here. In
fine, I do observe, he hath no esteem nor kindnesse for the Dukes
matters, but, contrarily, do slight him and them; and I pray God the
Kingdom do not pay too dear by this jarring; though this blockheaded Duke
I did never expect better from. At the office all the morning, at noon
home and thought to have slept, my head all day being full of business and
yet sleepy and out of order, and so I lay down on my bed in my gowne to
sleep, but I could not, therefore about three oclock up and to dinner and
thence to the office, where. Mrs. Burroughs, my pretty widow, was and so I
did her business and sent her away by agreement, and presently I by coach
after and took her up in Fenchurch Streete and away through the City,
hiding my face as much as I could, but she being mighty pretty and well
enough clad, I was not afeard, but only lest somebody should see me and
think me idle. I quite through with her, and so into the fields Uxbridge
way, a mile or two beyond Tyburne, and then back and then to Paddington,
and then back to Lyssen green, a place the coachman led me to (I never
knew in my life) and there we eat and drank and so back to Chasing Crosse,
and there I set her down. All the way most excellent pretty company. I had
her lips as much as I would, and a mighty pretty woman she is and very
modest and yet kinde in all fair ways. All this time I passed with mighty
pleasure, it being what I have for a long time wished for, and did pay
this day 5s. forfeite for her company. She being gone, I to White Hall and
there to Lord Arlingtons, and met Mr. Williamson, and find there is no
more need of my trouble about the Galliott, so with content departed, and
went straight home, where at the office did the most at the office in that
wearied and sleepy state I could, and so home to supper, and after supper
falling to singing with Mercer did however sit up with her, she pleasing
me with her singing of Helpe, helpe, till past midnight and I not a
whit drowsy, and so to bed.

13th. Lay sleepy in bed till 8 in the morning, then up and to the office,
where till about noon, then out to the Change and several places, and so
home to dinner. Then out again to Sir R. Vines, and there to my content
settled the business of two tallys, so as I shall have L2000 almost more
of my owne money in my hand, which pleases me mightily, and so home and
there to the office, where mighty busy, and then home to supper and to
even my Journall and to bed. Our fleete being now in all points ready to
sayle, but for the carrying of the two or three new ships, which will
keepe them a day or two or three more. It is said the Dutch is gone off
our coast, but I have no good reason to believe it, Sir W. Coventry not
thinking any such thing.

14th. Up betimes to the office, to write fair a laborious letter I wrote
as from the Board to the Duke of Yorke, laying out our want of money
again; and particularly the business of Captain Cockes tenders of hemp,
which my Lord Bruncker brought in under an unknown hand without name.
Wherein his Lordship will have no great successe, I doubt. That being
done, I down to Thames-streete, and there agreed for four or five tons of
corke, to send this day to the fleete, being a new device to make
barricados with, instead of junke. By this means I come to see and kiss
Mr. Hills young wife, and a blithe young woman she is. So to the office
and at noon home to dinner, and then sent for young Michell and employed
him all the afternoon about weighing and shipping off of the corke, having
by this means an opportunity of getting him 30 or 40s. Having set him a
doing, I home and to the office very late, very busy, and did indeed
dispatch much business, and so to supper and to bed. After a song in the
garden, which, and after dinner, is now the greatest pleasure I take, and
indeed do please me mightily, to bed, after washing my legs and feet with
warm water in my kitchen. This evening I had Davila

[Enrico Caterino Davila (1576-1631) was one of the chief historical
writers of Italy, and his Storia delle guerre civili di Francia
covers a period of forty years, from the death of Henri II. to the
Peace of Vervins in 1598.]

brought home to me, and find it a most excellent history as ever I read.

15th (Lords day). Up, and to church, where our lecturer made a sorry
silly sermon, upon the great point of proving the truth of the Christian
religion. Home and had a good dinner, expecting Mr. Hunt, but there comes
only young Michell and his wife, whom my wife concurs with me to be a
pretty woman, and with her husband is a pretty innocent couple. Mightily
pleasant we were, and I mightily pleased in her company and to find my
wife so well pleased with them also. After dinner he and I walked to White
Hall, not being able to get a coach. He to the Abbey, and I to White Hall,
but met with nobody to discourse with, having no great mind to be found
idling there, and be asked questions of the fleete, so walked only through
to the Parke, and there, it being mighty hot and I weary, lay down by the
canaille, upon the grasse, and slept awhile, and was thinking of a
lampoone which hath run in my head this weeke, to make upon the late fight
at sea, and the miscarriages there; but other businesses put it out of my
head. Having lain there a while, I then to the Abbey and there called
Michell, and so walked in great pain, having new shoes on, as far as
Fleete Streete and there got a coach, and so in some little ease home and
there drank a great deale of small beer; and so took up my wife and Betty
Michell and her husband, and away into the fields, to take the ayre, as
far as beyond Hackny, and so back again, in our way drinking a great deale
of milke, which I drank to take away, my heartburne, wherewith I have of
late been mightily troubled, but all the way home I did break abundance of
wind behind, which did presage no good but a great deal of cold gotten. So
home and supped and away went Michell and his wife, of whom I stole two or
three salutes, and so to bed in some pain and in fear of more, which
accordingly I met with, for I was in mighty pain all night long of the
winde griping of my belly and making of me shit often and vomit too, which
is a thing not usual with me, but this I impute to the milke that I drank
after so much beer, but the cold, to my washing my feet the night before.

16th. Lay in great pain in bed all the morning and most of the afternoon,
being in much pain, making little or no water, and indeed having little
within to make any with. And had great twinges with the wind all the day
in my belly with wind. And a looseness with it, which however made it not
so great as I have heretofore had it. A wonderful dark sky, and shower of
rain this morning, which at Harwich proved so too with a shower of hail as
big as walnuts. I had some broth made me to drink, which I love, only to
fill up room. Up in the afternoon, and passed the day with Balty, who is
come from sea for a day or two before the fight, and I perceive could be
willing fairly to be out of the next fight, and I cannot much blame him,
he having no reason by his place to be there; however, would not have him
to be absent, manifestly to avoid being there. At night grew a little
better and took a glyster of sacke, but taking it by halves it did me not
much good, I taking but a little of it. However, to bed, and had a pretty
good night of it,

17th. So as to be able to rise to go to the office and there sat, but now
and then in pain, and without making much water, or freely. However, it
grew better and better, so as after dinner believing the jogging in a
coach would do me good, I did take my wife out to the New Exchange to buy
things. She there while I with Balty went and bought a common
riding-cloake for myself, to save my best. It cost me but 30s., and will
do my turne mighty well. Thence home and walked in the garden with Sir W.
Pen a while, and saying how the riding in the coach do me good (though I
do not yet much find it), he ordered his to be got ready while I did some
little business at the office, and so abroad he and I after 8 oclock at
night, as far almost as Bow, and so back again, and so home to supper and
to bed. This day I did bid Balty to agree with the Dutch paynter, which he
once led me to, to see landskipps, for a winter piece of snow, which
indeed is a good piece, and costs me but 40s., which I would not take the
money again for, it being, I think, very good. After a little supper to
bed, being in less pain still, and had very good rest.

18th. Up in good case, and so by coach to St. Jamess after my fellows,
and there did our business, which is mostly every day to complain of want
of money, and that only will undo us in a little time. Here, among other
things, before us all, the Duke of Yorke did say, that now at length he is
come to a sure knowledge that the Dutch did lose in the late engagements
twenty-nine captains and thirteen ships. Upon which Sir W. Coventry did
publickly move, that if his Royal Highness had this of a certainty, it
would be of use to send this down to the fleete, and to cause it to be
spread about the fleete, for the recovering of the spirits of the officers
and seamen; who are under great dejectedness for want of knowing that they
did do any thing against the enemy, notwithstanding all that they did to
us. Which, though it be true, yet methought was one of the most
dishonourable motions to our countrymen that ever was made; and is worth
remembering. Thence with Sir W. Pen home, calling at Lillys, to have a
time appointed when to be drawn among the other Commanders of Flags the
last years fight. And so full of work Lilly is, that he was faro to take
his table-book out to see how his time is appointed, and appointed six
days hence for him to come between seven and eight in the morning. Thence
with him home; and there by appointment I find Dr. Fuller, now Bishop of
Limericke, in Ireland; whom I knew in his low condition at Twittenham. I
had also by his desire Sir W. Pen, and with him his lady and daughter, and
had a good dinner, and find the Bishop the same good man as ever; and in a
word, kind to us, and, methinks, one of the comeliest and most becoming
prelates in all respects that ever I saw in my life. During dinner comes
an acquaintance of his, Sir Thomas Littleton; whom I knew not while he was
in my house, but liked his discourse; and afterwards, by Sir W. Pen, do
come to know that he is one of the greatest speakers in the House of
Commons, and the usual second to the great Vaughan. So was sorry I did
observe him no more, and gain more of his acquaintance. After dinner, they
being gone, and I mightily pleased with my guests, I down the river to
Greenwich, about business, and thence walked to Woolwich, reading The
Rivall Ladys all the way, and find it a most pleasant and fine writ play.
At Woolwich saw Mr. Shelden, it being late, and there eat and drank, being
kindly used by him and Bab, and so by water to Deptford, it being 10
oclock before I got to Deptford, and dark, and there to Bagwells, and,
having staid there a while, away home, and after supper to bed. The Duke
of Yorke said this day that by the letters from the Generals they would
sail with the Fleete this day or to-morrow.

19th. Up in very good health in every respect, only my late fever got by
my pain do break out about my mouth. So to the office, where all the
morning sitting. Full of wants of money, and much stores to buy, for to
replenish the stores, and no money to do it with, nor anybody to trust us
without it. So at noon home to dinner, Balty and his wife with us. By and
by Balty takes his leave of us, he going away just now towards the fleete,
where he will pass through one great engagement more before he be two days
older, I believe. I to the office, where busy all the afternoon, late, and
then home, and, after some pleasant discourse to my wife, to bed. After I
was in bed I had a letter from Sir W. Coventry that tells me that the
fleete is sailed this morning; God send us good newes of them!

20th. Up, and finding by a letter late last night that the fleete is gone,
and that Sir W. Pen is ordered to go down to Sheernesse, and finding him
ready to go to St. Jamess this morning, I was willing to go with him to
see how things go,

[Sir William Penns instructions from the Duke of York directing him
to embark on his Majestys yacht Henrietta, and to see to the
manning of such ships has had been left behind by the fleet, dated
on this day, 20th July, is printed in Penns Memorials of Sir W.
Penn, vol. ii., p. 406.]

and so with him thither (but no discourse with the Duke), but to White
Hall, and there the Duke of York did bid Sir W. Pen to stay to discourse
with him and the King about business of the fleete, which troubled me a
little, but it was only out of envy, for which I blame myself, having no
reason to expect to be called to advise in a matter I understand not. So I
away to Lovetts, there to see how my picture goes on to be varnished (a
fine Crucifix),

[This picture occasioned Pepys trouble long afterwards, having been
brought as evidence that he was a Papist (see Life, vol. i., p.

which will be very fine; and here I saw some fine prints, brought from
France by Sir Thomas Crew, who is lately returned. So home, calling at the
stationers for some paper fit to varnish, and in my way home met with
Lovett, to whom I gave it, and he did present me with a varnished staffe,
very fine and light to walk with. So home and to dinner, there coming
young Mrs. Daniel and her sister Sarah, and dined with us; and old Mr.
Hawly, whose condition pities me, he being forced to turne under
parish-clerke at St. Gyless, I think at the other end of the towne.
Thence I to the office, where busy all the afternoon, and in the evening
with Sir W. Pen, walking with whom in the garden I am of late mighty
great, and it is wisdom to continue myself so, for he is of all the men of
the office at present most manifestly usefull and best thought of. He and
I supped together upon the seat in the garden, and thence, he gone, my
wife and Mercer come and walked and sang late, and then home to bed.

21st. Up and to the office, where all the morning sitting. At noon walked
in the garden with Commissioner Pett (newly come to towne), who tells me
how infinite the disorders are among the commanders and all officers of
the fleete. No discipline: nothing but swearing and cursing, and every
body doing what they please; and the Generalls, understanding no better,
suffer it, to the reproaching of this Board, or whoever it will be. He
himself hath been challenged twice to the field, or something as good, by
Sir Edward Spragge and Captain Seymour. He tells me that captains carry,
for all the late orders, what men they please; demand and consume what
provisions they please. So that he fears, and I do no less, that God
Almighty cannot bless us while we keep in this disorder that we are in: he
observing to me too, that there is no man of counsel or advice in the
fleete; and the truth is, the gentlemen captains will undo us, for they
are not to be kept in order, their friends about the King and Duke, and
their own house, is so free, that it is not for any person but the Duke
himself to have any command over them. He gone I to dinner, and then to
the office, where busy all the afternoon. At night walked in the garden
with my wife, and so I home to supper and to bed. Sir W. Pen is gone down
to Sheernesse to-day to see things made ready against the fleete shall
come in again, which makes Pett mad, and calls him dissembling knave, and
that himself takes all the pains and is blamed, while he do nothing but
hinder business and takes all the honour of it to himself, and tells me
plainly he will fling, up his commission rather than bear it.

22nd (Lords day). Up, and to my chamber, and there till noon mighty busy,
setting money matters and other things of mighty moment to rights to the
great content of my mind, I finding that accounts but a little let go can
never be put in order by strangers, for I cannot without much difficulty
do it myself. After dinner to them again till about four oclock and then
walked to White Hall, where saw nobody almost but walked up and down with
Hugh May, who is a very ingenious man. Among other things, discoursing of
the present fashion of gardens to make them plain, that we have the best
walks of gravell in the world, France having no nor Italy; and our green
of our bowling allies is better than any they have. So our business here
being ayre, this is the best way, only with a little mixture of statues,
or pots, which may be handsome, and so filled with another pot of such and
such a flower or greene as the season of the year will bear. And then for
flowers, they are best seen in a little plat by themselves; besides, their
borders spoil the walks of another garden: and then for fruit, the best
way is to have walls built circularly one within another, to the South, on
purpose for fruit, and leave the walking garden only for that use. Thence
walked through the House, where most people mighty hush and, methinks,
melancholy. I see not a smiling face through the whole Court; and, in my
conscience, they are doubtfull of the conduct again of the Generalls, and
I pray God they may not make their fears reasonable. Sir Richard Fanshaw
is lately dead at Madrid. Guyland is lately overthrowne wholly in Barbary
by the King of Tafiletta. The fleete cannot yet get clear of the River,
but expect the first wind to be out, and then to be sure they fight. The
Queene and Maids of Honour are at Tunbridge.

23rd. Up, and to my chamber doing several things there of moment, and then
comes Sympson, the Joyner; and he and I with great pains contriving
presses to put my books up in: they now growing numerous, and lying one
upon another on my chairs, I lose the use to avoyde the trouble of
removing them, when I would open a book. Thence out to the Excise office
about business, and then homewards met Colvill, who tells me he hath L1000
ready for me upon a tally; which pleases me, and yet I know not now what
to do with it, having already as much money as is fit for me to have in
the house, but I will have it. I did also meet Alderman Backewell, who
tells me of the hard usage he now finds from Mr. Fen, in not getting him a
bill or two paid, now that he can be no more usefull to him; telling me
that what by his being abroad and Shaws death he hath lost the ball, but
that he doubts not to come to give a kicke at it still, and then he shall
be wiser and keepe it while he hath it. But he says he hath a good master,
the King, who will not suffer him to be undone, as otherwise he must have
been, and I believe him. So home and to dinner, where I confess,
reflecting upon the ease and plenty that I live in, of money, goods,
servants, honour, every thing, I could not but with hearty thanks to
Almighty God ejaculate my thanks to Him while I was at dinner, to myself.
After dinner to the office and there till five or six oclock, and then by
coach to St. Jamess and there with Sir W. Coventry and Sir G. Downing to
take the gyre in the Parke. All full of expectation of the fleetes
engagement, but it is not yet. Sir W. Coventry says they are eighty-nine
men-of-warr, but one fifth-rate, and that, the Sweepstakes, which carries
forty guns. They are most infinitely manned. He tells me the Loyall
London, Sir J. Smith (which, by the way, he commends to be the-best ship
in the world, large and small), hath above eight hundred men; and moreover
takes notice, which is worth notice, that the fleete hath lane now near
fourteen days without any demand for a farthingworth of any thing of any
kind, but only to get men. He also observes, that with this excesse of
men, nevertheless, they have thought fit to leave behind them sixteen
ships, which they have robbed of their men, which certainly might have
been manned, and they been serviceable in the fight, and yet the fleete
well-manned, according to the excesse of supernumeraries, which we hear
they have. At least two or three of them might have been left manned, and
sent away with the Gottenburgh ships. They conclude this to be much the
best fleete, for force of guns, greatnesse and number of ships and men,
that ever England did see; being, as Sir W. Coventry reckons, besides
those left behind, eighty-nine men of warr and twenty fire-ships, though
we cannot hear that they have with them above eighteen. The French are not
yet joined with the Dutch, which do dissatisfy the Hollanders, and if they
should have a defeat, will undo De Witt; the people generally of Holland
do hate this league with France. We cannot think of any business, but lie
big with expectation of the issue of this fight, but do conclude that,
this fight being over, we shall be able to see the whole issue of the
warr, good or bad. So homeward, and walked over the Parke (St. Jamess)
with Sir G. Downing, and at White Hall took a coach; and there to supper
with much pleasure and to bed.

24th. Up, and to the office, where little business done, our heads being
full of expectation of the fleetes being engaged, but no certain notice
of it, only Sheppeard in the Dukes yacht left them yesterday morning
within a league of the Dutch fleete, and making after them, they standing
into the sea. At noon to dinner, and after dinner with Mercer (as of late
my practice is) a song and so to the office, there to set up again my
frames about my Platts, which I have got to be all gilded, and look very
fine, and then to my business, and busy very late, till midnight, drawing
up a representation of the state of my victualling business to the Duke, I
having never appeared to him doing anything yet and therefore I now do it
in writing, I now having the advantage of having had two fleetes
dispatched in better condition than ever any fleetes were yet, I believe;
at least, with least complaint, and by this means I shall with the better
confidence get my bills out for my salary. So home to bed.

25th. Up betimes to write fair my last nights paper for the Duke, and so
along with Sir W. Batten by hackney coach to St. Jamess, where the Duke
is gone abroad with the King to the Parke, but anon come back to White
Hall, and we, after an houres waiting, walked thither (I having desired
Sir W. Coventry in his chamber to read over my paper about the
victualling, which he approves of, and I am glad I showed it him first, it
makes it the less necessary to show it the Duke at all, if I find it best
to let it alone). At White Hall we find [the Court] gone to Chappell, it
being St. Jamess-day. And by and by, while they are at chappell, and we
waiting chappell being done, come people out of the Parke, telling us that
the guns are heard plain. And so every body to the Parke, and by and by
the chappell done, and the King and Duke into the bowling-green, and upon
the leads, whither I went, and there the guns were plain to be heard;
though it was pretty to hear how confident some would be in the loudnesse
of the guns, which it was as much as ever I could do to hear them. By and
by the King to dinner, and I waited there his dining; but, Lord! how
little I should be pleased, I think, to have so many people crowding about
me; and among other things it astonished me to see my Lord Barkeshire
waiting at table, and serving the King drink, in that dirty pickle as I
never saw man in my life. Here I met Mr. Williams, who in serious
discourse told me he did hope well of this fight because of the equality
of force or rather our having the advantage in number, and also because we
did not go about it with the presumption that we did heretofore, when, he
told me, he did before the last fight look upon us by our pride fated to
be overcome. He would have me to dine where he was invited to dine, at the
Backe-stayres. So after the Kings meat was taken away, we thither; but he
could not stay, but left me there among two or three of the Kings
servants, where we dined with the meat that come from his table; which was
most excellent, with most brave drink cooled in ice (which at this hot
time was welcome), and I drinking no wine, had metheglin for the Kings
owne drinking, which did please me mightily. Thence, having dined mighty
nobly, I away to Mrs. Martins new lodgings, where I find her, and was
with her close, but, Lord! how big she is already. She is, at least seems,
in mighty trouble for her husband at sea, when I am sure she cares not for
him, and I would not undeceive her, though I know his ship is one of those
that is not gone, but left behind without men. Thence to White Hall again
to hear news, but found none; so back toward Westminster, and there met
Mrs. Burroughs, whom I had a mind to meet, but being undressed did appear
a mighty ordinary woman. Thence by water home, and out again by coach to
Lovetts to see my Crucifix, which is not done. So to White Hall again to
have met Sir G. Carteret, but he is gone, abroad, so back homewards, and
seeing Mr. Spong took him up, and he and I to Reeves, the glass makers,
and did set several glasses and had pretty discourse with him, and so
away, and set down Mr. Spong in London, and so home and with my wife,
late, twatling at my Lady Pens, and so home to supper and to bed. I did
this afternoon call at my woman that ruled my paper to bespeak a musique
card, and there did kiss Nan. No news to-night from the fleete how matters
go yet.

26th. Up, and to the office, where all the morning. At noon dined at home:
Mr. Hunt and his wife, who is very gallant, and newly come from Cambridge,
because of the sicknesse, with us. Very merry at table, and the people I
do love mightily, but being in haste to go to White Hall I rose, and Mr.
Hunt with me, and by coach thither, where I left him in the boarded
gallery, and I by appointment to attend the Duke of Yorke at his closett,
but being not come, Sir G. Carteret and I did talke together, and [he]
advises me, that, if I could, I would get the papers of examination
touching the business of the last years prizes, which concern my Lord
Sandwich, out of Warcupps hands, who being now under disgrace and poor,
he believes may be brought easily to part with them. My Lord Crew, it
seems, is fearfull yet that maters may be enquired into. This I will
endeavour to do, though I do not thinke it signifies much. By and by the
Duke of Yorke comes and we had a meeting and, among other things, I did
read my declaration of the proceedings of the Victualling hired this
yeare, and desired his Royall Highnesse to give me the satisfaction of
knowing whether his Royall Highnesse were pleased therewith. He told me he
was, and that it was a good account, and that the business of the
Victualling was much in a better condition than it was the last yeare;
which did much joy me, being said in the company of my fellows, by which I
shall be able with confidence to demand my salary and the rest of the
subsurveyors. Thence away mightily satisfied to Mrs. Pierces, there to
find my wife. Mrs. Pierce hath lain in of a boy about a month. The boy is
dead this day. She lies in good state, and very pretty she is, but
methinks do every day grow more and more great, and a little too much,
unless they get more money than I fear they do. Thence with my wife and
Mercer to my Lord Chancellors new house, and there carried them up to the
leads, where I find my Lord Chamberlain, Lauderdale, Sir Robert Murray,
and others, and do find it the most delightfull place for prospect that
ever was in the world, and even ravishing me, and that is all, in short, I
can say of it. Thence to Islington to our old house and eat and drank, and
so round by Kingsland home, and there to the office a little and Sir W.
Battens, but no newes at all from the fleete, and so home to bed.

27th. Up and to the office, where all the morning busy. At noon dined at
home and then to the office again, and there walking in the garden with
Captain Cocke till 5 oclock. No newes yet of the fleete. His great
bargaine of Hempe with us by his unknown proposition is disliked by the
King, and so is quite off; of which he is glad, by this means being rid of
his obligation to my Lord Bruncker, which he was tired with, and
especially his mistresse, Mrs. Williams, and so will fall into another way
about it, wherein he will advise only with myself, which do not displease
me, and will be better for him and the King too. Much common talke of
publique business, the want of money, the uneasinesse that Parliament will
find in raising any, and the ill condition we shall be in if they do not,
and his confidence that the Swede is true to us, but poor, but would be
glad to do us all manner of service in the world. He gone, I away by water
from the Old Swan to White Hall. The waterman tells me that newes is come
that our ship Resolution is burnt, and that we had sunke four or five of
the enemys ships. When I come to White Hall I met with Creed, and he
tells me the same news, and walking with him to the Park I to Sir W.
Coventrys lodging, and there he showed me Captain Talbots letter,
wherein he says that the fight begun on the 25th; that our White squadron
begun with one of the Dutch squadrons, and then the Red with another so
hot that we put them both to giving way, and so they continued in pursuit
all the day, and as long as he stayed with them: that the Blue fell to the
Zealand squadron; and after a long dispute, he against two or three great
ships, he received eight or nine dangerous shots, and so come away; and
says, he saw the Resolution burned by one of their fire-ships, and four or
five of the enemys. But says that two or three of our great ships were in
danger of being fired by our owne fire-ships, which Sir W. Coventry, nor
I, cannot understand. But upon the whole, he and I walked two or three
turns in the Parke under the great trees, and do doubt that this gallant
is come away a little too soon, having lost never a mast nor sayle. And
then we did begin to discourse of the young gentlemen captains, which he
was very free with me in speaking his mind of the unruliness of them; and
what a losse the King hath of his old men, and now of this Hannam, of the
Resolution, if he be dead, and that there is but few old sober men in the
fleete, and if these few of the Flags that are so should die, he fears
some other gentlemen captains will get in, and then what a council we
shall have, God knows. He told me how he is disturbed to hear the
commanders at sea called cowards here on shore, and that he was yesterday
concerned publiquely at a dinner to defend them, against somebody that
said that not above twenty of them fought as they should do, and indeed it
is derived from the Duke of Albemarle himself, who wrote so to the King
and Duke, and that he told them how they fought four days, two of them
with great disadvantage. The Count de Guiche, who was on board De Ruyter,
writing his narrative home in French of the fight, do lay all the honour
that may be upon the English courage above the Dutch, and that he himself
[Sir W. Coventry] was sent down from the King and Duke of Yorke after the
fight, to pray them to spare none that they thought had not done their
parts, and that they had removed but four, whereof Du Tell is one, of whom
he would say nothing; but, it seems, the Duke of Yorke hath been much
displeased at his removal, and hath now taken him into his service, which
is a plain affront to the Duke of Albemarle; and two of the others, Sir W.
Coventry did speake very slenderly of their faults. Only the last, which
was old Teddiman, he says, is in fault, and hath little to excuse himself
with; and that, therefore, we should not be forward in condemning men of
want of courage, when the Generalls, who are both men of metal, and hate
cowards, and had the sense of our ill successe upon them (and by the way
must either let the world thinke it was the miscarriage of the Captains or
their owne conduct), have thought fit to remove no more of them, when
desired by the King and Duke of Yorke to do it, without respect to any
favour any of them can pretend to in either of them. At last we concluded
that we never can hope to beat the Dutch with such advantage as now in
number and force and a fleete in want of nothing, and he hath often
repeated now and at other times industriously that many of the Captains
have: declared that they want nothing, and again, that they did lie ten
days together at the Nore without demanding of any thing in the world but
men, and of them they afterward, when they went away, the generalls
themselves acknowledge that they have permitted several ships to carry
supernumeraries, but that if we do not speede well, we must then play
small games and spoile their trade in small parties. And so we parted, and
I, meeting Creed in the Parke again, did take him by coach and to
Islington, thinking to have met my Lady Pen and wife, but they were gone,
so we eat and drank and away back, setting him down in Cheapside and I
home, and there after a little while making of my tune to It is decreed,
to bed.

28th. Up, and to the office, where no more newes of the fleete than was
yesterday. Here we sat and at noon to dinner to the Popes Head, where my
Lord Bruncker and his mistresse dined and Commissioner Pett, Dr.
Charleton, and myself, entertained with a venison pasty by Sir W. Warren.
Here very pretty discourse of Dr. Charletons, concerning Natures
fashioning every creatures teeth according to the food she intends them;
and that mens, it is plain, was not for flesh, but for fruit, and that he
can at any time tell the food of a beast unknown by the teeth. My Lord
Bruncker made one or two objections to it that creatures find their food
proper for their teeth rather than that the teeth were fitted for the
food, but the Doctor, I think, did well observe that creatures do
naturally and from the first, before they have had experience to try, do
love such a food rather than another, and that all children love fruit,
and none brought to flesh, but against their wills at first. Thence with
my Lord Bruncker to White Hall, where no news. So to St. Jamess to Sir W.
Coventry, and there hear only of the Bredahs being come in and gives the
same small account that the other did yesterday, so that we know not what
is done by the body of the fleete at all, but conceive great reason to
hope well. Thence with my Lord to his coach-house, and there put in his
six horses into his coach, and he and I alone to Highgate. All the way
going and coming I learning of him the principles of Optickes, and what it
is that makes an object seem less or bigger and how much distance do
lessen an object, and that it is not the eye at all, or any rule in
optiques, that can tell distance, but it is only an act of reason
comparing of one mark with another, which did both please and inform me
mightily. Being come thither we went to my Lord Lauderdales house to
speake with him, about getting a man at Leith to joyne with one we employ
to buy some prize goods for the King; we find [him] and his lady and some
Scotch people at supper. Pretty odd company; though my Lord Bruncker tells
me, my Lord Lauderdale is a man of mighty good reason and judgement. But
at supper there played one of their servants upon the viallin some Scotch
tunes only; several, and the best of their country, as they seemed to
esteem them, by their praising and admiring them: but, Lord! the strangest
ayre that ever I heard in my life, and all of one cast. But strange to
hear my Lord Lauderdale say himself that he had rather hear a cat mew,
than the best musique in the world; and the better the musique, the more
sicke it makes him; and that of all instruments, he hates the lute most,
and next to that, the baggpipe. Thence back with my Lord to his house, all
the way good discourse, informing of myself about optiques still, and
there left him and by a hackney home, and after writing three or four
letters, home to supper and to bed.

29th (Lords day). Up and all the morning in my chamber making up my
accounts in my book with my father and brother and stating them. Towards
noon before sermon was done at church comes newes by a letter to Sir W.
Batten, to my hand, of the late fight, which I sent to his house, he at
church. But, Lord! with what impatience I staid till sermon was done, to
know the issue of the fight, with a thousand hopes and fears and thoughts
about the consequences of either. At last sermon is done and he come home,
and the bells immediately rung soon as the church was done. But coming; to
Sir W. Batten to know the newes, his letter said nothing of it; but all
the towne is full of a victory. By and by a letter from Sir W. Coventry
tells me that we have the victory. Beat them into the Weelings;

[In a letter from Richard Browne to Williamson, dated Yarmouth, July
30th, we read, The Zealanders were engaged with the Blue squadron
Wednesday and most of Thursday, but at length the Zealanders ran;
the Dutch fleet escaped to the Weelings and Goree (Calendar of
State Papers, 1665-66, p 591).]

had taken two of their great ships; but by the orders of the Generalls
they are burned. This being, methought, but a poor result after the
fighting of two so great fleetes, and four days having no tidings of them,
I was still impatient; but could know no more. So away home to dinner,
where Mr. Spong and Reeves dined with me by invitation. And after dinner
to our business of my microscope to be shown some of the observables of
that, and then down to my office to looke in a darke room with my glasses
and tube, and most excellently things appeared indeed beyond imagination.
This was our worke all the afternoon trying the several glasses and
several objects, among others, one of my plates, where the lines appeared
so very plain that it is not possible to thinke how plain it was done.
Thence satisfied exceedingly with all this we home and to discourse many
pretty things, and so staid out the afternoon till it began to be dark,
and then they away and I to Sir W. Batten, where the Lieutenant of the
Tower was, and Sir John Minnes, and the newes I find is no more or less
than what I had heard before; only that our Blue squadron, it seems, was
pursued the most of the time, having more ships, a great many, than its
number allotted to her share. Young Seamour is killed, the only captain
slain. The Resolution burned; but, as they say, most of her [crew] and
commander saved. This is all, only we keep the sea, which denotes a
victory, or at least that we are not beaten; but no great matters to brag
of, God knows. So home to supper and to bed.

30th. Up, and did some business in my chamber, then by and by comes my
boys Lute-Master, and I did direct him hereafter to begin to teach him to
play his part on the Theorbo, which he will do, and that in a little time
I believe. So to the office, and there with Sir W. Warren, with whom I
have spent no time a good while. We set right our business of the
Lighters, wherein I thinke I shall get L100. At noon home to dinner and
there did practise with Mercer one of my new tunes that I have got Dr.
Childe to set me a base to and it goes prettily. Thence abroad to pay
several debts at the end of the month, and so to Sir W. Coventry, at St.
Jamess, where I find him in his new closett, which is very fine, and well
supplied with handsome books. I find him speak very slightly of the late
victory: dislikes their staying with the fleete up their coast, believing
that the Dutch will come out in fourteen days, and then we with our
unready fleete, by reason of some of the ships being maymed, shall be in
bad condition to fight them upon their owne coast: is much dissatisfied
with the great number of men, and their fresh demands of twenty-four
victualling ships, they going out but the other day as full as they could
stow. I asked him whether he did never desire an account of the number of
supernumeraries, as I have done several ways, without which we shall be in
great errour about the victuals; he says he has done it again and again,
and if any mistake should happen they must thanke themselves. He spoke
slightly of the Duke of Albemarle, saying, when De Ruyter come to give him
a broadside—Now, says he, chewing of tobacco the while, will this
fellow come and give, me two broadsides, and then he will run; but it
seems he held him to it two hours, till the Duke himself was forced to
retreat to refit, and was towed off, and De Ruyter staid for him till he
come back again to fight. One in the ship saying to the Duke, Sir,
methinks De Ruyter hath given us more: than two broadsides;—Well,
says the Duke, but you shall find him run by and by, and so he did, says
Sir W. Coventry; but after the Duke himself had been first made to fall
off. The Resolution had all brass guns, being the same that Sir J. Lawson
had in her in the Straights. It is observed that the two fleetes were even
in number to one ship. Thence home; and to sing with my wife and Mercer in
the garden; and coming in I find my wife plainly dissatisfied with me,
that I can spend so much time with Mercer, teaching her to sing and could
never take the pains with her. Which I acknowledge; but it is because that
the girl do take musique mighty readily, and she do not, and musique is
the thing of the world that I love most, and all the pleasure almost that
I can now take. So to bed in some little discontent, but no words from me.

31st. Good friends in the morning and up to the office, where sitting all
the morning, and while at table we were mightily joyed with newes brought
by Sir J. Minnes and Sir W. Batten of the death of De Ruyter, but when Sir
W. Coventry come, he told us there was no such thing, which quite dashed
me again, though, God forgive me! I was a little sorry in my heart before
lest it might give occasion of too much glory to the Duke of Albemarle.
Great bandying this day between Sir W. Coventry and my Lord Bruncker about
Captain Cocke, which I am well pleased with, while I keepe from any open
relyance on either side, but rather on Sir W. Coventrys. At noon had a
haunch of venison boiled and a very good dinner besides, there dining with
me on a sudden invitation the two mayden sisters, Bateliers, and their
elder brother, a pretty man, understanding and well discoursed, much
pleased with his company. Having dined myself I rose to go to a Committee
of Tangier, and did come thither time enough to meet Povy and Creed and
none else. The Court being empty, the King being gone to Tunbridge, and
the Duke of Yorke a-hunting. I had some discourse with Povy, who is
mightily discontented, I find, about his disappointments at Court; and
says, of all places, if there be hell, it is here. No faith, no truth, no
love, nor any agreement between man and wife, nor friends. He would have
spoke broader, but I put it off to another time; and so parted. Then with
Creed and read over with him the narrative of the late [fight], which he
makes a very poor thing of, as it is indeed, and speaks most slightingly
of the whole matter. Povy discoursed with me about my Lord Peterboroughs
L50 which his man did give me from him, the last years salary I paid him,
which he would have Povy pay him again; but I have not taken it to myself
yet, and therefore will most heartily return him, and mark him out for a
coxcomb. Povy went down to Mr. Williamsons, and brought me up this
extract out of the Flanders letters to-day come: That Admiral Everson,
and the Admiral and Vice-Admiral of Freezeland, with many captains and
men, are slain; that De Ruyter is safe, but lost 250 men out of his own
ship; but that he is in great disgrace, and Trump in better favour; that
Bankerts ship is burned, himself hardly escaping with a few men on board
De Haes; that fifteen captains are to be tried the seventh of August; and
that the hangman was sent from Flushing to assist the Council of Warr. How
much of this is true, time will shew. Thence to Westminster Hall and
walked an hour with Creed talking of the late fight, and observing the
ridiculous management thereof and success of the Duke of Albemarle. Thence
parted and to Mrs. Martins lodgings, and sat with her a while, and then
by water home, all the way reading the Narrative of the late fight in
order, it may be, to the making some marginal notes upon it. At the Old
Swan found my Betty Michell at the doore, where I staid talking with her a
pretty while, it being dusky, and kissed her and so away home and writ my
letters, and then home to supper, where the brother and Mary Batelier are
still and Mercers two sisters. They have spent the time dancing this
afternoon, and we were very merry, and then after supper into the garden
and there walked, and then home with them and then back again, my wife and
I and the girle, and sang in the garden and then to bed. Colville was with
me this morning, and to my great joy I could now have all my money in,
that I have in the world. But the times being open again, I thinke it is
best to keepe some of it abroad. Mighty well, and end this month in
content of mind and body. The publique matters looking more safe for the
present than they did, and we having a victory over the Dutch just such as
I could have wished, and as the kingdom was fit to bear, enough to give us
the name of conquerors, and leave us masters of the sea, but without any
such great matters done as should give the Duke of Albemarle any honour at
all, or give him cause to rise to his former insolence.